Joint Committee to Develop a Master Plan for Education
2002 Master Plan for Education Summary of Recommendations
The State should consolidate and expand funding for all infant and toddler services and enhance developmental screening in the earliest years of life.
The State should support the effective coordination of health and social services delivery for all children, beginning with services that meet young children's developmental needs, at sites that are conveniently accessible to families.
The State should provide funding to establish neighborhood-based School Readiness Centers to give families access to essential services to meet young children's developmental needs.
To the greatest extent possible, schools should make available facilities where students and their families may access essential services from community health and social service providers.
For the two years prior to kindergarten entry, the State should provide voluntary access to formal preschool programs that offer group experiences and developmentally appropriate curricula.
The law should be changed to require full-schoolday kindergarten for all children, and preschool guidelines and kindergarten standards, curricula, and services should be aligned.
The State should provide for the phasing in of full-schoolday kindergarten, beginning immediately for communities served by schools that currently have API scores in the lower three deciles and expanding annually until all of California's children have a full-schoolday kindergarten experience.
Schools should establish and maintain explicit compacts for active and meaningful partnerships that make parents and parent groups full partners in the education of their children. Parents should seek to assist school personnel by preparing their children for continued formal and informal learning, and by providing home support designed to overcome barriers to children's learning.
The State should require that every teacher be adequately prepared prior to being assigned independent responsibility for a classroom of students.
The State should immediately replace emergency permit usage with universal participation in the pre-internship program, requiring that every uncredentialed teacher be hired as a pre-intern, utilize a state- or district- developed instructional system, and be supported to complete teacher preparation as soon as is feasible.
The State should set a specific timeline (approximately five years) to phase out the use of the pre-internship program and require that all teachers be qualified before being assigned independent responsibility for a classroom.
On a more aggressive schedule, the State should eliminate the use of the pre-internship program in California's lowest performing schools and require that all teachers be qualified before being assigned independent responsibility for their classrooms in those schools. In addition, the State should seek to eliminate altogether the assignment of credentialed teachers to subjects not included in their credentials. Further, the State should require that all teachers serving in low-performing schools possess valid teaching credentials.
The State should increase the capacity of California's postsecondary education systems to prepare larger and sufficient numbers of qualified educators, especially from among racial, ethnic, and linguistic groups, and the gender group underrepresented in today's teaching workforce, for our public schools and preschools, particularly in regions where there are large numbers of teachers serving on emergency permits or where projected shortages of teachers are greatest.
The State should adopt more rigorous education requirements and certification standards for all individuals who teach young children in center-based settings or who supervise others who care for young children, and should immediately require a minimum program of state-approved professional development for all publicly funded providers of care to young children.
The State should provide additional resources to attract and retain the finest educators for schools serving high concentrations of students living in poverty.
The State should require teacher preparation, teacher-induction and ongoing professional development programs, validated or proven instructional systems, and institutional activities to feature a focus on teaching children with diverse needs, ethnicities, nationalities, and languages; on teaching children who bring particular challenges to the learning process; and on teaching in urban settings.
The State should provide short-term grant funding to create additional professional development schools that operate as partnerships between institutions of postsecondary education and low-performing schools. These professional development schools should focus on increasing the production of teachers motivated and appropriately prepared to effectively promote achievement of students enrolled in these schools.
The State should eventually provide ongoing resources for ten days of professional staff development annually at all public schools. These resources should be provided initially for school districts throughout the State with the lowest performing schools, consistent with school improvement plans approved by those districts and with state standards.
The State should provide funding to selected districts to permit linkage of an increase in staff development days with a corresponding increase in instructional days, especially in low-performing schools.
The State should provide grant funding to develop models for embedded professional development at the school-site and district levels.
The State should establish a career ladder for teachers that rewards exceptional teachers for staying in the classroom.
The State should provide incentive funding to school districts to create career ladders that reward teachers for demonstrated knowledge, expertise, and effective practice.
The State should promote recognition that becoming and remaining a qualified and effective teacher is, as with mastery of any profession, a long-term, developmental process.
To achieve equity as well as reduced provider charges through the use of collective purchasing power, the State itself should negotiate with statewide employee organizations, and fund the employer share of, uniform non-salary employment benefits for all local school employees.
The State should take action to increase the capability of California colleges and universities to attract and hire academically qualified teachers and faculty members who also have knowledge and understanding of teaching and learning, and to develop teachers with appropriate expertise to staff a comprehensive school curriculum.
The State should expand programs to attract talented individuals, especially from underrepresented groups, into PreK-12 teaching and postsecondary faculty careers, through forgivable loans and teaching fellowships.
California colleges and universities should strive to ensure that their schools of education have the resources needed to produce a substantial proportion of the teachers and faculty needed to staff our preschools, K-12 and adult schools, colleges, and universities, over the next decade and beyond.
The State should increase doctoral and master's degree production in areas of high need, drawing upon the combined resources of the California State University and University of California systems, as well as the independent sector of postsecondary education.
California colleges and universities should develop an infrastructure to support the ongoing professional development of faculty, in order to improve the quality of teaching and promote student learning. The components of this infrastructure should include:
- integration of teaching and learning curricula into master's and doctoral degree programs;
- inclusion of teaching expertise and experience criteria, when hiring decisions are made;
- continuous development support throughout faculty careers, including focused support for each newly appointed faculty member during his or her first year;
- development of an organizational structure that supports and rewards teaching excellence and the scholarship of teaching throughout a faculty member's career;
- sustained efforts to make teaching and the scholarship of teaching more highly valued aspects of faculty culture;
- expansion and dissemination of the knowledge base about college teaching and learning, including establishment of a statewide center on postsecondary teaching and learning; and
- preparation of experts in the field of teaching and learning.
The Legislature should direct the California Community Colleges, California State University, and the University of California to adopt policies, within one year of being directed to do so, regarding the appropriate balance of temporary and permanent/tenure-track faculty for their respective systems, and to provide the rationale for the policies adopted.
The California Community Colleges, California State University, and University of California systems should report to the Legislature each year the ratios of permanent/tenure-track to temporary faculty employed by their respective systems and how those ratios compare to their respective system-wide policies.
The California Community Colleges, California State University, and University of California systems should report to the Legislature the sets of activities reserved for permanent/tenure-track faculty, in their respective system, and their rationales for why temporary faculty cannot be enlisted to assist in carrying out such activities.
The California Community Colleges, California State University, and University of California systems should provide adequate pro rata compensation to temporary faculty who agree to perform functions usually restricted to permanent and tenure-track faculty.
The State should strive to maintain compensation schedules that make California competitive in attracting and retaining excellent teachers, faculty, counselors, administrators, classified staff, and other education professionals for its early childhood education settings, public schools, colleges, and universities.
The governing boards of all three public sectors of postsecondary education should direct an examination of faculty promotion, tenure, and review policies and practices, and revise them, as needed, to ensure that teaching excellence is given significant weight in decisions that affect the compensation awarded to faculty.
The boards of trustees of local school districts should review their compensation policies, and revise them as needed, to ensure that continuing professional education for which they grant salary credit is targeted to courses likely to yield clear benefit in terms of either employees' pedagogical, instructional leadership, or management skills, or the depth of their academic subject matter knowledge.
Supervision and mentoring of students and student groups should be given ample consideration in employee performance reviews and be a factor in decisions that affect compensation of teachers, faculty, and other education professionals.
The State should set ambitious learning goals and provide all students a challenging and comprehensive PreK-12 curriculum, including preparation for postsecondary education and careers.
The State should ensure that early learning gains are continued, by aligning developmentally appropriate guidelines, standards, and curricula for preschool, early childhood education, kindergarten, and the primary grades.
The State should establish a standard, academically rigorous curriculum for every high school student. This curriculum should make available career and technical courses, so that every student can be aware of, and prepared for, a full array of post-high school options. The State should provide the learning support necessary, including resources for career guidance and assistance, to enable students to successfully complete this postsecondary readiness curriculum.
The State should ensure that all schools provide all students with a curriculum and coursework that include the knowledge, skills, and experiences to enable them to attain mastery of oral and written expression in English and that establish a foundation for future mastery of a second language, by the end of elementary school, and attainment of oral proficiency and full literacy in both English and at least one other language, by the end of secondary school.
The California Adult School program and the California Community Colleges should collaborate to strengthen articulation of adult education courses with community college coursework, to enable successful transition of adults from adult school to postsecondary education. Similarly, career technical courses offered by K-12 schools and community colleges should be articulated with postsecondary coursework.
The California Community Colleges, California State University, and University of California systems should collaborate to strengthen the programs in community colleges that prepare students to transfer successfully to the California State University or the University of California and to ensure that those courses are acceptable for transfer credit at all campuses of the California State University or the University of California.
The California Community Colleges should enhance their career and technical programs that lead to occupational certificates and occupational associate degrees; all high schools, regional occupation centers and programs, adult schools, and postsecondary education institutions should offer industry skill certifications that prepare students to enter the job market with a set of competencies they will need to succeed; and the California State University and University of California systems should enhance the quality of their programs that prepare students to enter professional careers with the competencies they will need to succeed.
The K-12, regional occupation centers and programs, adult schools, and community college workforce preparation systems should be linked to state job training agencies and employers through one-stop career centers and other venues and through their inclusion in an expanded workforce report card.
The California State University and University of California systems should continue to adhere to the policy of guaranteeing that all students who apply for freshman admission and who are eligible to attend (students within the top one-third, in the case of California State University applicants, and the top one-eighth, in the case of University of California applicants) are offered admission to the system(s) for which they are eligible and have applied. Community colleges should continue to be open to all high school graduates and adults who can benefit from postsecondary instruction.
The California State University and University of California systems should continue collaborating with K-12 schools to increase the rigor of all academic courses, to achieve the goals of reducing demand for remedial instruction among freshman students and eliminating the current practice of providing additional weight to honors and AP courses in GPA calculations during the admissions process.
The governing boards of the California State University and the University of California should authorize each of their campuses to consider both objective and qualitative personal characteristics equally, when assembling each year's freshman classes annually from among the pool of eligible candidates.
The California State University and University of California systems should continue to be authorized to admit up to eight percent and six percent, respectively, of their new undergraduates annually through the use of non-traditional criteria.
State and local policy-makers should ensure that every school is provided with sufficient quantities of learning materials, equipment, and other resources that are current, in good condition, and appropriate to the learning needs of students, including:
- Individual textbooks, workbooks, and other required instructional media for use in and out of school;
- Resources necessary to enable teachers to tailor and creatively adapt curriculum to the interests and needs of individual students;
- Supplies, equipment, and other instructional materials necessary to support the instructional program at each level, as recommended in the state content standards, including teacher guides to textbooks;
- Computers with Internet access that each student and teacher may use on a basis determined by school personnel to be appropriate for her/his level of study or teaching;
- Suitable chairs, desks, and other classroom or laboratory equipment;
- Books, technical manuals, and other materials or equipment that can be borrowed from the school library and elsewhere, that students may use individually;
- Curriculum and materials for English language learners; and
- Curriculum, materials, and support for learners with identified disabilities.
The State should require and fund the provision of flexible time and instruction, to support learning and ensure successful transitions between education levels.
State and local policy-makers should define adequate learning support in K-12 education as those resources and interventions necessary to meet the academic and career preparation needs of all students, which help ensure that all students attain the state academic standards, and which help all students who desire to do so meet college preparatory requirements and requirements for career success in the workplace.
The State should move aggressively to eliminate the use of multi-track year-round school schedules that result in fewer calendar days of instruction.
The State should assign responsibility and provide targeted resources at the postsecondary level to enable increased numbers of postsecondary education students to succeed in their academic coursework and attain certificates, industry certifications, and degrees, and to ensure that no category of student fails to achieve their educational goals in disproportionate numbers.
School districts and public postsecondary education institutions, respectively, should provide additional learning support services at kindergarten, grades three and eight, in the last two years of high school, and during the first year of college to assist students who take longer to meet standards or who may be ready to accelerate.
Local school districts and postsecondary education institutions should develop partnerships to recruit, prepare, and educate quality educational leaders.
The State should encourage and support school district efforts to provide school principals with greater authority to use human and fiscal resources in different ways to achieve greater success in promoting student achievement.
School districts should provide more resources, such as additional staff and professional development, to principals in low-performing schools.
School districts should increase salaries for administrators serving in low-performing schools.
The State should take steps to ensure qualified leadership for the California Community Colleges.
The California State University and University of California systems should develop and offer preparation and professional development programs for community college leadership, the content of which should include development of the capacity to lead by inspiration and a sensitivity to and comfort with diversity and multiculturalism. These professional development programs should include the establishment of a state-level or campus-based center devoted to community college leadership development and leadership issues.
The California Community College system should improve the terms and conditions of administrative employment in community colleges, including offering qualified administrators return rights to permanent faculty positions as an incentive to attract outstanding professionals to community college leadership positions.
The State should expand recruitment for counselors trained in career guidance, as well as in academic and psychological fields, in order to ensure that students have the assistance they need to make informed choices about preparation for their post-high school activities.
The State should guarantee suitable learning environments for all students, including buildings, classrooms, and other facilities.
The State should establish clear, concise, and workable standards for facilities, to ensure a high-quality/high performance teaching and learning environment.
The State should require each school district to prepare and adopt, with appropriate public review and consultation, a five-year facilities plan to meet or exceed state facilities standards.
The State should establish design standards for subsidized early childhood education facilities, appropriate to young children's development.
The State should establish an Innovation Fund to support innovative projects and intersegmental collaboration in education, particularly when they seek to improve learning opportunities for students enrolled in low-performing schools or to increase the use of public facilities located in the service communities of schools.
To target learning support adequately and complement state testing, the State should establish as standard practice the use of classroom-based diagnostic assessments that specifically link to interventions aimed at enabling students to meet California's academic standards and postsecondary education entrance and placement requirements.
The State should continue the process of requiring state-supported preschool providers and kindergartens to develop an individualized learning plan for each child, for assessment of the child's developmental growth.
The State should charge local districts with developing their own assessment systems/policies for providing information about and guiding instruction of individual students.
The State should encourage schools and postsecondary institutions to develop end-of-course assessments that can serve the dual purposes of measuring what a student has mastered at each grade/course level and the student's readiness to successfully undertake learning at the next grade/course level. A key focus should be the readiness of high school seniors to undertake postsecondary education coursework without need for remediation. In particular, assessments of 11th grade performance should be aligned, if not integrated, with entrance or placement examinations of the State's college and university systems.
Schools, colleges, and universities should use authentic assessments that measure students' school/campus accomplishments, including work samples and portfolio entries, in relevant academic subjects, and that would allow students to progress through a variety of coordinated delivery systems.
California's colleges and universities should work collaboratively to develop a means of assessing the learning of students enrolled in public postsecondary education.
Membership of the Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates (ICAS) should be augmented with faculty from California's PreK-12 schools. The resulting new PreKpostsecondary intersegmental faculty body should be charged with reviewing and recommending changes, if needed, in the alignment and coordination of curricula, assessment, admissions, and placement.
The Legislature should mandate the development of transparent and sustainable articulation and transfer processes to provide students with clear curricular guidance on the transition between grade levels, between high school and college, and between and among two- and four-year colleges and universities while avoiding the complexity of campus-by-campus differentiation.
The California Department of Education should encourage and provide support for continuity of guidelines, standards, and curricula of kindergartens and state-supported preschools; it should strive for similar continuity with non-state-supported preschools.
The governing boards of the University of California, California State University, and California Community Colleges systems, themselves or through the efforts of their faculty, should provide for the devising of system-wide articulation policies to enable students to transfer units freely between and among public colleges and universities in California. The attainment of this objective should be enforced by the proper application of accountability measures, as discussed on page 110111 of this report.
The University of California, California State University, and California Community College systems should establish an intersegmental group that includes faculty and students, to consider what steps need to be taken to establish a transfer Associate's degree, within the existing Associate degree unit requirements, the attainment of which would guarantee admission, and course transferability, to any California State University or University of California campus (though not necessarily the major of choice) for students successfully completing the transfer degree program.
The State should encourage explicit infusion of age appropriate school-to-career experiences in public schools, colleges, and universities to provide students with clear curricular and career guidance about the range of post-high school options to which they can aspire and to cultivate greater civic engagement among Californians.
The State should support preparation of new teachers and ongoing professional development for all existing staff in technology applications, to ensure they have the skills to help students develop the technology skills and knowledge needed for lifelong achievement and success.
Authority over the operations of California's PreK-12 public education system at large, and ultimate responsibility for the delivery of education to California's PreK-12 public education students in particular, should both reside within the Office of the Governor. The Office of the Governor should have authority to implement the following functions, as assigned to its various sub-entities by the Legislature:
- Apportion resources to schools to support teaching and learning, pursuant to statutory and budgetary direction;
- Manage the state financial accountability program and school district fiscal audit reviews;
- Establish education standards and other learning expectations for students and a process for periodic review and modification of those standards and expectations;
- Adopt K-8 textbooks (a function constitutionally assigned to the State Board of Education);
- Establish developmentally appropriate program and operating standards for early childhood education and require continuity between the academic guidelines, standards and curricula for preschool and kindergarten;
- Administer school improvement programs; and
- Promote an understanding of effective uses of data to improve student learning.
The Governor should appoint a cabinet-level Chief Education Officer, to carry out, on behalf of the Governor, all state-level operations, management, and programmatic functions, and to serve as the Director of the Department of Education.
The Governor should continue to appoint, with the consent of the State Senate, the State Board of Education. The Board's members should be drawn from and represent distinct geographical regions, and should reflect the ethnic and gender diversity of the state's populace. The functions of the State Board of Education should be limited to state policy matters specified by the Legislature.
Once management of the California Department of Education has been transferred to the Governor's office, the separate executive director and staff of the State Board within the Department of Education should be eliminated.
The Superintendent of Public Instruction should remain an elected position and be responsible for all aspects of accountability for public education other than fiscal accountability. The Superintendent should exercise the following functions related to accountability in California's K-12 education system:
- Provide for and manage a comprehensive accountability system of student and institutional measurement, to include indicators of the opportunities for teaching and learning, outputs, quality of information, and governance/policy instruments that aim to ensure adequate and equitable provision of education;
- Ensure compliance with special education and civil rights law by all relevant participants in the education system;
- Monitor the impact of state policy on the success of local K-12 programs in fostering student achievement;
- Monitor the implementation of state and federal programs to ensure that they meet the needs of all targeted students;
- Provide public identification of schools that have failed to meet student achievement targets;
- Define and implement the processes for intervention in schools that fail to meet student achievement targets pursuant to state and federal laws;
- Serve as an advisor to the Legislature and the Governor and as an advocate to promote the State's Master Plan for Education and system accountability; and
- Act as the independent spokesperson of California's populace, and of students in particular, in public discourse on educational issues.
Local school district governing boards should be assigned the policy and administrative authority and a set of management responsibilities to enable them to effectively operate schools that are responsive both to state-level standards and policy priorities and to local community needs. These responsibilities should include, but not be limited to, the following:
- Establish a vision for the goals and objectives the district;
- Develop and adopt district policy on how best to implement local, state, and federal goals and requirements for the PreK-12 system as a whole, within the local context;
- Recruit/select highly qualified individuals for senior leadership positions;
- Ensure that the district superintendent is meeting the vision, goals and performance
- objectives of the district, and ensure that the superintendent holds district personnel accountable;
- Adopt a fiscally responsible budget based on the district's vision and goals, and regularly monitor the fiscal health of the district;
- Allocate available resources within the district so as to balance baseline equity— appropriately staffed, safe, clean, and decent schools for all students—with targeted additional resources pursuant to special funding categories described in the Quality Education Model;
- Establish a framework for the district's collective bargaining process, in the instances in which bargaining is used, and adopt responsible agreements that reflect the interests of the public;
- Adopt district curriculum and monitor student progress;
- Provide support, as necessary, to ensure the success of schools within the district;
- Collaborate and seek sustained positive partnerships with other non-education elements of local government, local employers, postsecondary education institutions, and community organizations; and
- With particular regard to middle and secondary grades, maintain constant institutional emphasis on locally tailored efforts to achieve and maintain high rates of pupil attendance.
The State should take steps to bring all school districts into unified PreK-12 structures.
The Legislature should develop fiscal and governance incentives to promote local communities organizing their local schools into unified districts, and should eliminate all fiscal and other disincentives to unification.
Local districts should, where appropriate, consolidate, disaggregate, or form networks to share operational aspects, to ensure that the educational needs of their students are effectively met and that their operational efficiency is maximized.
The Legislature should undertake a comprehensive study to determine the optimal size ranges for school districts with respect to both educational delivery and the conduct of business operations. The study should additionally identify a range of funding considerations that are based on size and structural options and that could be appropriately leveraged to attain optimal conditions.
Each county committee on school organization should review the findings of the study and should have a period of three years to develop and recommend local plans and conduct local elections that would implement the findings of the study for all school districts within its jurisdiction.
Local districts should be provided the opportunity to exercise a degree of firmly established local control, protected from encroachment by state laws, through an amendment to the state constitution permitting those districts to adopt limited 'home rule' authority by votes of their electorates in a manner similar to that long authorized in the constitution for cities and counties.
The Legislature should initiate a state-level inquiry to examine the optimal size of county offices of education, the potential transition of county offices of education into regional entities, and the efficiencies that might be realized from the consolidation of various operational aspects of county offices to organize their services to meet current and emerging district and regional needs, including fiscal oversight and management and administrative assistance. Based on the findings of this inquiry, the Master Plan should be amended, as appropriate, to incorporate action based on the findings of this inquiry.
County/Regional offices of education should be assigned a set of functions, resources, and authority both to serve local districts in their efforts to provide comprehensive curricula to students and professional development opportunities for professional staff, and to act as monitoring agents on behalf of the State to ensure that every public school meets minimal standards of educational quality. These functions and responsibilities should include the following:
- Directly provide educational services to students served by small districts that might not otherwise be able to provide a comprehensive array of curricular offerings or learning support and to students attending court and county community schools;
- Provide professional development, or facilitate the provision of professional development to education personnel in school districts requesting such services;
- Serve as the appellate body for parents who disagree with specified decisions of local school boards;
- Monitor fiscal decisions of local school boards and, when appropriate, intervene to forestall imminent bankruptcy if local budget decisions were to be implemented;
- Serve as the primary catalyst and facilitating agency to ensure that all schools have access to a technology infrastructure that enables electronic exchange of information and educational materials; and
- Monitor the facility decisions of local boards and, when appropriate, intervene to ensure that every school maintains facilities that comply with state quality assurance standards.
The California Community Colleges should be reconstituted as a public trust with its board of governors responsible for overall governance, setting system policy priorities, budget advocacy, and accountability for a multi-campus system. The primary functions of the California Community Colleges should continue to include instruction in the general or liberal arts and sciences up through, but not exceeding, the second year of postsecondary education leading to associate's degrees or transfer to other institutions; education, training, and services that advance California's economic growth; and vocational and technical instruction leading to employment, and community services. Community colleges should also be authorized to:
- Provide instruction at the upper division level jointly with the California State University, University of California, or a WASC-accredited independent or private postsecondary education institution.
The membership of the California Community College Board of Governors should be modified to include as ex-officio members the Governor, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Lieutenant Governor, and the Speaker of the Assembly.
The responsibilities of the California Community College Board of Governors should be defined as the following:
- Exercise general supervision over, and coordination of, the local community college districts;
- Provide leadership and direction through research and planning;
- Establish minimum conditions and standards for all districts to receive state support and to function within the system;
- Establish specific accountability measures and assure evaluation of district performance based on those measures;
- Approve courses of instruction and educational programs that meet local, regional, and state needs;
- Administer state operational and capital outlay support programs;
- Adopt a proposed system budget and allocation process;
- Ensure system-wide articulation with other segments of education; and
- Represent the districts before state and national legislative and executive agencies.
The responsibilities of the California Community College local boards of trustees should be defined as the following:
- Establish, maintain, and oversee the colleges within each district;
- Assure each district meets the minimum conditions and standards established by the Board of Governors;
- Establish policies for local academic, operations, and facilities planning to assure accomplishment of the statutory mission within conditions and standards established by the Board of Governors;
- Adopt local district budgets;
- Oversee the procurement and management of property;
- Establish policies governing student conduct; and
- Establish policies to guide new course development, course revision/deletion, and curricular quality.
The California Community College Board of Governors should have the same degree of flexibility and authority as that of the California State University, including the authority to appoint and approve senior staff of the Board of Governors.
A state assessment should be conducted on the value of and need for restructuring of local districts, with attention to the size and number of colleges in a district, as well as the scope of authority that should be assigned to each district. Should this assessment find restructuring valuable and desirable, incentives should be provided to encourage restructuring.
The status of the California State University as a public trust; and the size, composition, term of office, and responsibilities of its Board of Trustees should remain unchanged. The primary functions of the California State University should continue to include instruction in the liberal arts and sciences through the master's degree, in the professions and applied fields that require more than two years of postsecondary education, and in teacher education. It should continue to be authorized to:
- Award the doctoral degree jointly with the University of California or with a WASC-accredited independent or private postsecondary institution;
- Engage in faculty research, using state-supported facilities provided for and consistent with the primary function of the California State University.
The University of California should continue to be constituted as provided in Section 9, Article IX of California's constitution. The size, composition, term of office, and responsibilities of its Board of Regents should remain unchanged. The primary functions of the University of California should continue to include instruction in the liberal arts and sciences and in the professions, including teacher education. It should continue to have exclusive jurisdiction among public postsecondary education for instruction in the professions of law, medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. The University of California should continue to have sole authority to award doctoral degrees in all fields, except that it may agree to jointly award doctoral degrees with the California State University in selected fields. The University of California should continue to be the primary, although not exclusive, academic agency for research.
The Legislature should convene a task force to develop a strategic plan for the delivery of adult education, including a list of indicators that should be used to assess the effectiveness of California's Adult Education system. The task force assembled for this purpose should submit its plan to the Legislature for adoption.
To ensure that comparable quality of instruction is available to all Californians enrolling in adult continuing education, the State should quickly move toward reciprocity of instructional credentials, based on appropriate minimum qualifications, between the K-12-operated adult and community college-operated noncredit education systems, to allow instructors to teach in either or both systems.
State priorities for adult and noncredit education should include English as a Second Language, Elementary and Secondary Basic Skills, and Vocational Education. The State should strive to provide adequate resources to ensure that these priorities are addressed by all adult education providers.
The Legislature should review the founding statutes of the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) and should confirm or amend them, as appropriate, to ensure that the commission has the capacity and authority to carry out its mission as the coordinating entity for postsecondary education and chief objective adviser to the Governor and Legislature regarding the continuing improvement of California postsecondary education.
The Commission's primary functions should include:
Providing long-range planning for meeting the postsecondary education needs of Californians, including the adequate provision of facilities, programs, and campuses, and assessing and advising state policymakers regarding priorities dictated by current and evolving public needs;
- Providing policy and fiscal analyses regarding the most critical issues affecting the success of Californians in attending and graduating from postsecondary education institutions;
- Coordinating the analyses, policy recommendations, and long-range planning proposals of various public and private entities, as needed, to secure the long-term fiscal stability and public financing of public postsecondary education, including the development of student fee and financial aid policies and the efficient use of state resources across segmental boundaries;
- Advising the Legislature on appropriate accountability indicators for postsecondary education, to be adopted in statute, and subsequently reporting annually to the Legislature and the Governor on the performance of public postsecondary institutions in meeting the adopted indicators.
- Evaluating and reporting to the Legislature and the Governor the extent to which public postsecondary education institutions are operating consistent with state policy priorities and discharging the responsibilities assigned to them in statute;
- Reviewing and approving new public campuses for postsecondary education; and
- Reviewing academic programs for public, postsecondary education institutions.
CPEC should be given the authority to require information to be submitted by the various segments of postsecondary education. Each year, immediately prior to the Legislature's postsecondary education budget deliberations, CPEC should provide a report to the budget committee chairs of both houses, and to the Legislative Analyst, regarding the record of the various segments in responding to the Commission's requests for information.
CPEC should continue to be advised by the existing statutory advisory committee. The segmental representatives to the CPEC statutory advisory committee should consist of the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges, the Chancellor of the California State University, the President of the University of California, the President of the Association of Independent California Colleges and Universities, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction, or an executive-level designee ofeach.
The Legislature and Governor should immediately create a new California Education Commission (CEC). The CEC should have initial responsibility for planning, coordination, and analysis that encompasses preschool and K-12 education, as well as the interface between K-12 and postsecondary education.
The commission's primary functions should be:
- Providing long-range analysis and planning for meeting the educational needs of all Californians;
- Providing policy and fiscal advice, based on data analysis, that represents the public interest in California's education system;
- Serving as California's statewide education data repository;
- Evaluating the extent to which all public education institutions are operating consistent with state policy priorities;
- Advising the Legislature and the Governor on the potential and actual impacts of major education policy proposals or initiatives;
- Coordinating statewide articulation of curriculum and assessment between the PreK12 and postsecondary education sectors;
- Providing long-term planning for the development of joint and other shared use of facilities and programs between PreK-12 and postsecondary education entities;
- Sponsoring and directing inter-segmental programs that benefit students making the transition from secondary school to college and university; and
- Coordinating outreach activities among PreK-12 schools and postsecondary education and work-sector entities.
The Legislature should identify and implement effective mechanisms to compel all relevant agencies with responsibility for gathering and maintaining comprehensive data on one or more aspects of California's education system, preschool through university, to submit specified data to the commission.
The Joint Committee should consider structuring the California Education Commission with eight lay representatives; four appointed by the Governor, two appointed by the Senate Rules Committee, and two appointed by the Assembly Speaker. In addition, the Superintendent of Public Instruction should serve as the chair of this commission. This structural option should be evaluated against other options and the preferred model submitted to the Legislature and Governor for adoption.
All oversight of state-approved private colleges and universities offering academic degrees at the associate of arts level or higher should be transferred from the Department of Consumer Affairs to the California Postsecondary Education Commission, to ensure the quality and integrity of degrees awarded under the auspices of the State of California.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission should develop standards to promote articulation, when appropriate, and to foster collaborative shared use of facilities and instructional equipment between state-approved private colleges and universities awarding academic degrees and regionally accredited public and independent colleges and universities.
The California Postsecondary Education Commission should be designated as the state approval agency for veterans' institutions and veterans' courses, and should have the same powers as are currently conferred on the Director of Education by Section 12090 et seq. of the Education Code, to enter into agreements and cooperate with the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, or any other federal agency, regarding approval of courses, and to approve and supervise institutions thatoffer courses to veterans.
The State should establish a system of regularly reported indicators for PreK-12 accountability and improvement and develop a system of appropriate rewards and interventions, based on those indicators, that will promote continuous improvement of student achievement.
The K-12 Academic Performance Index (API) should be expanded in statute so that it includes grade promotion and other indicators of academic outcomes, in addition to multiple measures of student achievement, and indicators of opportunities for teaching and learning.
The Superintendent of Public Instruction should identify appropriate school-level indicators of schools' status regarding the availability and use of high-quality learning resources, conditions, and opportunities, based on standards that specify what government agencies - the State and school districts - must provide all schools. This information should be collected by the California Education Commission and reported by the Superintendent of Public Instruction in a format that permits comparison against standards arising from the state's Quality Education Model and made publicly available through revision of the School Accountability Report Card.
The California Education Commission should collect appropriate and relevant data to allow the Superintendent of Public Instruction to assess and report on the effectiveness of California's programs for young children, and integrate these data collection and analysis efforts with the K-12 API effort.
The State should create benchmarks and criteria, based on prototype schools, that will serve as desirable models of high quality schools. They would also serve as the basis for determining adequacy of funding and provide potential expenditure streams to guide local education decision makers. The State should also collect and disseminate information about actual schools with effective programs and practices that promote student achievement.
The State should develop a long-term strategic plan for the meaningful use of accountability data and indicators that are linked to state educational goals by state and local policymakers, educators, and all Californians to determine the impact of programs and interventions designed to improve learning conditions and outcomes. The plan should also contain strategies for remedying identified inadequacies.
The State should develop a series of progressive interventions in K-12 education that support low performing schools' efforts to build their organizational capacity, develop high quality programs, and support student learning, particularly in schools of the greatest need. The State should also develop a series of progressive rewards that recognize schools for significant improvement and high achievement. The criteria for implementing interventions and rewards should be clearly defined and linked to the evaluation of annual performance data.
The State should develop a series of definitive actions to apply as consequences to any entity within the public education system that fails to meet its responsibilities. These actions should range from loss of flexibility in defined expenditure decisions to the loss of control of its responsibilities.
The accountability system should enable policymakers and the public to detect performance barriers beyond the level of the school, and distinguish carefully among actors or agencies primarily causing them. At a minimum, the Superintendent of Public Instruction should measure, report, and use all performance indicators at the state and district levels, as well as at the school level, and develop mechanisms to hold state agencies and districts directly accountable for their schools' performance, consistent with the discussion of accountability on pages 108-109 of this report.
The State should establish a consistent and straightforward way for local schools to describe their expenditure and programmatic decisions, to compare them with the State's prototype expenditure guidelines, minimum standards, and outcome goals, and to clarify the trade-offs implicit in budget decisions.
The California Department of Education should expand adult education course standards to include student performance measures such as those developed by the National Skill Standards Board, the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS), and Equipped for the Future.
The State should support and expand existing accountability mechanisms for adult education providers that emphasize student performance and reward institutions for improving student achievement. The State should also encourage incorporation of the foregoing standards for workplace skills and adoption of state standards for student achievement.
The State should bring postsecondary education into an integrated accountability system by developing a set of accountability indicators that are consistent with state policy objectives and institutional missions and that would monitor quality and equity in access and achievement of all students in common academic content areas. All public, independent, and private institutions should be required to participate in the reporting of these accountability indicators as a condition of receiving state moneys either through direct appropriation or student financial aid.
The State's accountability framework for postsecondary education should be improved by modification and expansion of the 'partnership' budget approach, currently applied to the University of California and the California State University systems, to include all postsecondary education, clarify the link between performance and funding, and adopt realistic alternatives for times of revenue downturns.
The State should specify the set of indicators of student and institutional performance on which every public college and university must provide data annually, along with an implementation timeline.
The Legislature should direct a 13-member Quality Education Commission, consisting of business, parent, and education community leaders from throughout the state, to develop a California Quality Education Model (CQEM), to be consistent with the parameters set forth in this Plan, and use that model to determine an adequate level of funding necessary to support a high-quality education for every student enrolled in public schools, PreK-12.
Within 12 months of its formation, the commission should submit its final report, encompassing the prototype model and the commission's findings and recommendations, to the Legislature and Governor. The Legislature should adopt the model as the basis for determining PreK-12 education funding for California.
The Quality Education Commission should continuously monitor, evaluate, and refine the California Quality Education Model, as appropriate, to ensure that its implementation provides adequate funding for high quality education for all students at all schools.
The Legislature should limit adjustments to the adequate base of funding to three types of categorical funding to reflect differences from the prototypes used in the California Quality Education Model.
The State should develop a K-12 school finance system that recognizes a limited set of differential costs, primarily geographic in nature, that are not under the control or influence of school districts, by establishing a District Characteristics adjustment. The additional revenue provided to school districts in recognition of these uncontrollable cost factors would result in similar overall levels of 'real' resources.
The State should include in the K-12 school financing system block grants for allocation to school districts on the basis of Student Characteristics that mark a need for additional educational resources. Further, we strongly suggest that the adjustments in this category be limited to additional funding for special education, services for English language learners who have been enrolled in California schools for less than five years, and resources provided in recognition of the correlation of family income level with student achievement. (New programs in these areas should be tested and implemented through an initiative process, described in the following recommendation).
The State should establish a category of grants that would be clearly identified as Initiatives. These initiatives should be limited in duration, and serve one of two purposes:
- Pilot and evaluate proposed new programs before they are implemented statewide. Once such a program were implemented statewide, the funding for it would be consolidated into the base funding for schools, or one of the two major categories of adjustments - student characteristics and district characteristics.
- Meet immediate, but temporary, needs for additional funding targeted to specific districts to mitigate the effects of transitory, and possibly unforeseen, shocks to the instructional program. For example, funding provided for programs specifically targeted to reduce the number of emergency permit teachers would be a high priority, but presumably time-limited, effort.
The State should provide local school districts with options for generating revenue locally to supplement their adequate funding base (as outlined in recommendations 45 and 46), and should provide local community college districts the same options for generating revenue locally.
The State should authorize school districts in counties where a majority of school districts wish to join together to propose to the electorate a sales and use tax increase, within the local option sales and use tax levy limitation, to take effect with the approval of the voters in a countywide election. Revenue would be divided among the schools on a population (per-pupil) basis, or as delineated in the tax measure. The State should provide for an equalization mechanism to enable a state-guaranteed tax yield, to ensure that each county voting to do so could raise the statewide average per-pupil amount that would be realized through the imposition of a given tax rate.
The Legislature should approve a ballot initiative to amend the constitutional provisions governing the property tax, to authorize school districts that have voted for and been granted 'home rule' authority (see Recommendation 34), and all community college districts, to propose to the electorate a property tax override for the exclusive use of the public schools or community colleges. The State should assure a minimum, state-guaranteed yield per pupil through a statewide equalization mechanism to provide state financial assistance to communities where a self-imposed tax rate would not yield the minimum state-determined per-pupil amount for that rate.
The Legislature should direct an analysis of the feasibility of replacing the current funding model for school facilities with annual state per-pupil allocations restricted to assisting school districts in meeting their capital and major maintenance needs according to a long-term Facilities Master Plan adopted by each school district. State and local funding for capital outlay and major maintenance should be protected to prevent redirection of capital resources when other cost pressures arise and to protect the public's investment in major capital projects.
The State should require that first priority for capital funding
allocations be given to meeting projected needs, taking into consideration historical patterns
of student migration/mobility. After all school districts have achieved state standards of
adequacy for their facilities and the State has transitioned into a base per-pupil allocation
mechanism, the commitment to equity should change focus from 'leveling up' to
accommodation of special circumstances.
The State should create a statewide school facilities inventory system to assist state and local decision makers in determining short- and long-term school facilities needs.
The State should adopt policies to provide more stability for finance and to dampen the 'boom and bust' swings of state appropriations for postsecondary education.
The State should establish the California Community Colleges' share of overall state revenues guaranteed by Proposition 98 to K-14 education at 10.93 percent.
The State should analyze the appropriateness of modifying the current 'marginal cost' approach for funding all additional enrollments in public colleges and universities, to account for contemporary costs of operations, differing missions and functions, and differential student characteristics that affect costs in each sector.
The State should make an annual investment for state-supported applied research by public postsecondary education institutions, to be held in reserve to allow the State to address issues of urgent public priority, as identified by the Legislature and the Governor. Such investment and allocation should be consistent with the missions of the postsecondary education sectors.
The Legislature and Governor should, after formal study of all relevant factors, determine and define how the costs of postsecondary education should be distributed among the State, the federal government, and students and their families, and thereupon design a new, fiscally responsible, and appropriately balanced student fee policy that would preserve access to higher education opportunity for all of California's students, particularly those from low-income and underrepresented groups.
The State should adopt a student fee policy aimed at stabilizing student fees, such that, to the extent feasible, fees would increase in a moderate and predictable fashion when needed, and should resist pressure to buy out student fee increases or reduce student fees at the California Community Colleges California State University, and University of California systems during strong economic times. The State should adopt distinct student fee policies designed to address the unique needs and considerations of California's 2-year and 4-year public institutions.
State policy should allow additional fee revenue collected by community colleges to remain with each college, without a General Fund offset, whenever fiscal conditions compel fees to be increased.
The State should maintain a need-based financial aid and scholarship program to assist students from low-income backgrounds to pursue their educational objectives in a California college or university.
The State should continue to emphasize financial need in the award of state-supported student grants and should continue to fund the Cal Grant 'entitlement' as defined in SB 1644 (Statutes of 2000). The State should assure outreach and distribution of information regarding financial aid to students from low-income families and under-represented groups.
The maximum Cal Grant amount awarded to students choosing to attend independent postsecondary education institutions should be reviewed periodically, but at least once every five years and, as needed, adjusted to maintain the estimated average General Fund cost of educating a student at the public four-year institutions of postsecondary education, including the average authorized student fees charged by the California State University and University of California systems.
The State's financial aid policy should consider the role of institutional aid, maintaining flexibility in its use by higher education institutions, while holding the institutions accountable for its use in meeting the State's commitment to providing need-based financial aid.
The Legislature should regularly review, and where appropriate update, state financial aid programs in order to ensure that eligibility requirements are consistent with contemporary needs of students.
The State should review its methodology for determining and funding facilities in California postsecondary education, and, as appropriate for each segment, make changes to emphasize multiple-use facilities, comprehensive space planning, sharing of space among institutions, and incentives to maximize other sources of capital outlay.
The State should develop and fund a per-child allocation model for financing early child care and education, sufficient to meet the new system's quality standards and organizational infrastructure requirements.
The State should consolidate, under the California Department of Education, all child development funding sources, including those from the departments of Education and Social Services, and create new sources of revenue to augment existing funds.
The State should create a Financing Task Force to calculate the per-child allocation needed to fund high-quality early education services and organizational infrastructure for low-income newborns to three-year olds, and for school readiness services for families with children, from birth to kindergarten.
The State should improve the availability, quality, and maintenance of early education facilities.
The State should increase the number of school facilities serving young children.
The State should provide incentives to stimulate facility construction and development.
The State should provide incentives for employers to implement family-friendly policies geared to helping parents carry out their responsibilities for nurturing and facilitating the readiness of their children for success in formal schooling.
The State should take the lead in developing educational technology partnerships that include the public, private, non-profit, and for-profit sectors.
The State should encourage local education agencies to establish partnerships with utilities, telecommunication companies, software and hardware providers, and others, to facilitate functional universal access to technology in all public schools, colleges, and universities.
The State and local communities should establish incentives for joint development and use of school facilities, with cities and counties, including libraries, classrooms, other learning sites, and recreational and community space.
- New construction should be linked to the community, and better links should be established with the community in existing schools.
- The facilities should be constructed in compliance with the uniform building codes applicable to other public buildings, such as libraries and government offices.
- Technology should be integrated and support distributed learning in these and other settings.
The State should provide incentives to encourage businesses to contribute to meeting the technology infrastructure and upgrade needs of public education institutions and the communities they serve.
The Legislature should create a joint committee to perform a comprehensive review of this California Master Plan for Education at least every ten years from the date of submission of this report.
In light of the rapidly changing times and emerging conditions we are experiencing, the Legislature should create a joint committee no more than five years from the date of submission of this report, for the purpose of reviewing especially important, emerging issues, including:
- The potential impact of electronically-mediated and distance learning on the effectiveness of teaching and learning, as well as on the variety of learning options from among which Californians might choose to pursue their interests in acquiring new knowledge and new skills;
- The variety of formats in which textbooks and other instructional materials could be available and the possibilities that these formats could offer for assuring that every learner enrolled in a public education institution has access to current information and learning support;
- The findings of research on effective ways to create and sustain small learning communities and diverse learning environments, that may suggest new ways to structure and finance public schools; and
- Future governance styles that might cultivate educational leadership, and collaborative governance arrangements that could improve the effectiveness and seamlessness of California's education system, including an examination of current management practices and collective bargaining in the context of teaching and learning.
The legislative joint committee to be empanelled five years from the adoption of this report pursuant to the preceding recommendation, should further examine, and where appropriate take action on, the implementation of key recommendations of this Plan to ensure that sufficient progress is being made toward the goals of this Plan. These recommendations include at least the following:
- Elimination of the use of teachers with emergency credentials, particularly in low-performing schools;
- Progress in elimination of the use of multi-track year-round school schedules that have fewer calendar days of instruction;
- Development of 'opportunities for teaching and learning' indicators for inclusion in the Student Accountability Report Card and use by the Superintendent of Public Instruction;
- Review of the findings of various studies called for in this Plan, including those of optimal organization for county offices of education and school districts, and the cost of funding essential components of a quality education system; and
- Progress in implementing a comprehensive educational data system.
The Legislative Analyst should, on an annual basis, review the operations of the California Postsecondary Education Commission and the California Education Commission to determine the extent to which, and the effectiveness with which, they are meeting the functions assigned to them, and should report the findings of that review to the Legislature during the annual state budget process. Within these reviews, the Legislative Analyst should assess the feasibility of merging the California Education Commission and the California Postsecondary Education Commission into one entity with two divisions to better serve the well-being of all California education.
The Legislative Analyst should, at least every five years, review the foregoing, as well as other, emerging issues to determine their potential impact on successful implementation of this Master Plan and report to the Legislature any issues which appear to warrant further analysis and/or policy action.